What are Present Levels of Performance (PLOP)?

Parent Question
Mar. 8, 2022Updated Jun. 28, 2022

The present levels of performance (PLOP, also sometimes called PLAAFP or PLP) describe the child’s current abilities, strengths, and needs or challenges, and are a key component of progress reporting. The IEP team uses a variety of information when composing PLOPs for a student, such as recent assessment data, achievement testing scores, academic testing scores, teacher input/interview data, student work samples, observation data, psychological/socioemotional assessment data, parent input, and behavior data. PLOPs are an important component of the IEP, as they are used to develop a student’s goals and objectives as well as determine their services and supports, and may be used to aid in determining a student’s educational placement. They include academic achievement as well as functional skills such as behavior, communication, social skills, emotional well-being, and life skills. PLOPs should include strengths (what the student can do), areas of need (what the student should learn to do), and impact of disability (how the disability affects the child’s access to the curriculum/environment).

Well-written PLOPs ensure that each area of the IEP is developmentally appropriate and adequately addresses the student’s strengths and needs. The IEP team is responsible for updating a student’s PLOPs annually for every new IEP and any time an IEP is amended. This is especially important if the amendment involves changing goals, services, placement, curriculum track, or the state test the student is planning to take.

For more details, see our article Key Parts of an IEP.

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